By Shruti Khanna and Rosemary Hartman
Figure 1. The hard-working staff of the UC Davis Center for Spatial Technologies and Remote Sensing survey water weeds using large thatch rakes. Image credit: UC Davis.
If you’ve ever tried to take a boat across one of the large, flooded islands in the Delta, there is a good chance you’ve gotten your propeller snagged on water weeds. Submersed aquatic vegetation (which is the fancy, scientific term for ‘water weeds’) have been getting worse and worse in recent years, with invasive species taking over areas that were previously open water. Most of these weeds are introduced species from South America, but even some of our native species have been expanding rapidly. Weeds were the subject of several papers in the most recent State of Bay Delta Science, they were the subject of a recent paper synthesizing many years of herbicide data to look at weed control effectiveness at a landscape scale, and data on aquatic weeds in the Delta has been published in several different datasets. Classification maps are now available for all aquatic plants in the Delta for most of 2004-2022 (with 2023 in the works) and there is a new, integrated dataset made up of vegetation samples from four different programs. Together, these data and publications are increasing our understanding of where weeds are a problem and what to do about it.
The recent paper “Multi-year landscape-scale efficacy of fluridone treatment of invasive submerged aquatic vegetation in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta”, published earlier this year in Biological Invasions, was an excellent example of how many datasets could be integrated and used to answer a major management question. Water weeds have been managed with herbicides by California State Parks Division of Boating and Waterways for years, but its always seemed like a Sisyphean affair – constant use of herbicides and mechanical removal while weeds just keep growing back (for more info, see recent special issue of the Journal of Aquatic Plant Management). This gave lead author Dr. Shruti Khanna the idea that someone should look at whether the treatments were working. So she enlisted the help of Dr. Jereme Gaeta – statistician extraordinaire, Dr. Edward Gross – an expert in hydrodynamic modeling, and Dr. Louise Conrad – who could provide both scientific and policy advice.
For Shruti, the best part was working with the other members of the team: “Honestly, what I enjoyed most was working with Jereme on this project. He brought methods of analysis to the table that I couldn't have dreamed of when I was doing my PhD. I just didn't have the know-how. So, it was a very complementary effort - my remote sensing and geospatial skills to extract spatial information and integrate it with diverse other datasets, his statistical skills to create a nuanced GAM model to explore the data, and Louise's expert knowledge on the treatment program, its history, and management perspective made the publication a lot stronger. It was Jereme's idea to add Ed's hydrodynamic modeling of water speed to our analysis. Incorporating speed gave a whole new perspective to our study and turned out to be critical to understanding why treatment is sometimes not effective."
They gathered data gathered in the field on when and where weeds were treated, annual maps of weed distribution collected with hyperspectral imagery, and predicted current speed based on hydrodynamic models. The final integrated dataset was made of five diverse datasets with field data tables, rasters, vectors, and model output. They then created a statistical model to see whether multiple years of herbicide treatment resulted in lower probability of weeds. They found that when high levels of herbicide were applied there was a lower probability of weeds being there, but only at low current speeds (See figure 2). If the water was moving quickly, all the herbicide would be washed away and there was no effect of treatment (See figure 3).
Figure 2. Graph of model results from Khanna et al. 2023 showing probability of vegetation presence versus current speed. At low current speeds, fluridone decreased the probability of vegetation being present. But at high current speeds, there was no effect of fluridone. Graph reproduced from Khanna et al. 2023, with permission of the authors.
In a complicated, tidal system like the Delta, it is extremely difficult to control weeds when the herbicides get washed away by the tides more often than not. New tools are currently under investigation by members of the Delta Region Areawide Aquatic Weed Project, including the Division of Boating and Waterways, US Department of Agriculture, UC Davis, and others to get a better handle on this sticky problem.
Figure 3. Diagram of what is going on at herbicide treatment spots in the Delta. Fluridone comes in pellets which slowly release into the water column. When current speeds are low, water ‘sloshes’ back and forth a bit, but fluridone concentration remains high and weeds are killed. When current speeds are high, all the fluridone washes away before it can be effective. Image credit: Shruti Khanna, CDFW.
- Borgnis E, Boyer KE. 2015. Salinity tolerance and competition drive distributions of native and invasive submerged aquatic vegetation in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts.1-11.
- Boyer KE, Safran SM, Khanna S, Patten MV. 2023. Landscape Transformation and Variation in Invasive Species Abundance Drive Change in Primary Production of Aquatic Vegetation in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science. 20(4)
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- IEP Aquatic Vegetation PWT, Khanna S, Conrad JL, Caudill J, Christman M, Darin G, Ellis D, Gilbert P, Hartman R, Kayfetz K et al. 2018. Framework For Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring in the Delta (pdf). Sacramento, CA: Interagency Ecological Program. No. Technical Report 92.
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- Rasmussen NL, Conrad JL, Green H, Khanna S, Wright H, Hoffmann K, Caudill J, Gilbert P. 2022. Efficacy and fate of fluridone applications for control of invasive submersed aquatic vegetation in the estuarine environment of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Estuaries and Coasts. 45:1842-1860.
- Rasmussen, N. 2023. Submersed aquatic vegetation community composition in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta integrated across four surveys ver 1. Environmental Data Initiative. (Accessed 2023-06-05).